What’s Solend and the way does it work


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Solend is a decentralized lending and borrowing protocol constructed on Solana. It’s lauded for increasing the strategies accessible for Solana customers to spice up monetary features. Filling a big hole within the Solana ecosystem, Solend drew a staggering $100 million in deposits in simply over a month post-launch.

Associated: DeFi lending and borrowing, defined

Solend rode the excessive scalability of the Solana blockchain, which had constructed its repute for being quick and with low transaction charges. The arrival of Solana meant customers may use their capital effectively by lending and incomes curiosity, utilizing the funds mendacity idle to earn income from a plethora of alternatives. In step with the philosophy behind decentralization, Solend is a community-driven venture the place voters collectively make selections.

This text explores Solend and its workings, together with lending and borrowing, earnings and rewards, creation of swimming pools, related dangers, the whale situation and different associated ideas.

What’s Solend?

Solend is an autonomous lending and borrowing platform that permits customers to borrow or lend property on the Solana community. An algorithm determines rates of interest and collaterals on the protocol, permitting customers to earn curiosity and leverage crypto property lengthy or brief on the platform. SLND, the native token of Solend, supplies publicity to Solana’s decentralized finance (DeFi) market.

When Solend launched in August 2021, its whole worth locked (TVL) was lower than $20 million. Round three months later, its TVL skyrocketed to roughly $1 billion. Solend hopes to be the biggest DeFi lending and borrowing protocol on the Solana community.

Beforehand, Solend was prototyped as a part of the June 2021 Solana Season Hackathon, which it gained. The success catalyzed the venture to stroll into the world of DeFi as a lending protocol.

How does Solend work?

At its core, Solend permits customers to interact in decentralized lending on the Solana community. Customers deposit property to their accounts on Solend and earn curiosity. Furthermore, they will additionally collateralize their deposits to get loans with out justifying their means to repay.

An autonomous app, Solend eliminates the necessity for debtors to undergo a posh underwriting course of to find out the monetary danger for an establishment when sanctioning a mortgage. They may simply take lengthy and short-term loans, as all processes are self-propelled due to good contracts that think about a mess of clauses for establishing borrowing limits and gathering curiosity.

Activities that Solend facilitates

How crypto lending works on Solana

For lending and borrowing on Solend, customers require a Solana pockets with sufficient funds to pay the gasoline charges. They want SOL, the native cryptocurrency of Solana, to entry the performance of the community.

Customers can borrow or lend cryptocurrencies on suitable platforms. The variety of crypto tokens the platform helps is steadily rising. This permits customers to leverage a broad array of crypto property, together with native cash, stablecoins and memecoins, including versatility to the platform. Your complete itemizing course of is ruled by the neighborhood, in sync with the philosophy of DeFi.

Earlier than customers can borrow or lend crypto property, they should join their Solana pockets to the platform and add SOL to their account. Customers can verify their transaction particulars by an account panel.

Earnings and rewards

The lender not solely earns curiosity primarily based on annual proportion yield, resembling typical lending, but in addition extra rewards within the type of SLND tokens, that are the native tokens of Solend.

Swimming pools

Solend has a principal international liquidity pool, with a number of smaller remoted and permission swimming pools. Tokens having dependable oracles and thick liquidity may be listed in the principle pool. Most tokens, nevertheless, are listed on remoted swimming pools first earlier than being shifted to the principle pool.

Remoted swimming pools are smaller ones for itemizing tokens with much less liquidity and extra volatility. Permission swimming pools allow anybody to create an remoted pool on the protocol.

The creator of an remoted pool earns 20% of the origination charges generated within the particular pool. Tokens accessible on the token record, together with a predetermined commerce quantity, will seem on the itemizing. As soon as all of the parameters are met, customers should click on the “Create pool” button to create a pool.

Creating a pool using the Solend account panel

Account panel

The account panel is visually pleasing and intuitive, which individuals can start engaged on with out going by in depth tutorials. The panel has the “Provide” possibility, telling customers in regards to the curiosity they might earn. However, the “Borrow” possibility tells customers the quantity they might borrow primarily based on the crypto property they maintain.

The crimson bar on the account panel signifies the liquidation threshold on every mortgage the customers have taken. If the worth of the collateralized asset goes down and the mortgage goes previous the liquidation threshold, the system can liquidate the customers’ property and deposit the funds with the lenders.

How Solend earns

Solend itself earns by levying protocol charges on loans. The charges additionally assist an insurance coverage fund for the platform. The customers can shortly borrow and promote crypto property with out paying extreme transaction charges. Solend’s treasury supplies insurance coverage cowl for the property within the pool in case of any exploits or hacks.

Dangers related to utilizing Solend

Whereas speaking in regards to the salient options of Solend, there are dangers related to utilizing it:

Flawed feed by oracles

Oracles reporting the flawed feed may play havoc on Solend. The worth feeds of Pyth Community and Switchboard set off liquidations on the platform. These oracles reporting incorrect costs would end in wrongful liquidations.

On Nov. 2, 2022, Solend did endure an oracle exploit, culminating in $1.26 million of dangerous debt. The associated swimming pools have been disabled and exchanges have been knowledgeable in regards to the exploiter’s tackle.

Vulnerability of good contracts

One other danger risk is a bug or vulnerability of the good contract. Solend is an algorithmic, decentralized protocol, and any malfunction of the good contracts would possibly consequence within the theft or everlasting lack of funds.

Associated: What is a brilliant contract safety audit: A newbie’s information

100% utilization of funds

Like all DeFi swimming pools, a danger state of affairs is 100% utilization of funds. One can’t take a mortgage if no property stay within the pool. The issue is termed 100% utilization. Nonetheless, if debtors maintain repaying their loans or new provides maintain arriving, such an issue might not come up.


Yet one more danger risk is related to liquidations. Although Solend gives overcollateralized loans, one can’t overlook that the crypto market is risky, with fluctuating asset values that would consequence within the liquidation of funds of an unsuspecting person. This makes it vital for everybody to pay shut consideration to their loans and investments.

Massive, single debtors

Being a big lending pool, a key vulnerability of Solana is the presence of a giant, single borrower, referred to as a whale. Whales have an outsized presence within the protocol. This resulted in a June 2022 crash involving a whale borrower.

A Solana whale with $108 million virtually crashed the Solana community in June 2022. The protocol barely prevented the liquidation of 95% of SOL deposits in its lending pool. Let’s dig a bit deeper into the way it all occurred.

The whale had an impressive mortgage of $108 million price of USD Coin (USDC) and Tether (USDT), backed by collateral of $170 million price of SOL. All the pieces was positive whereas the value of SOL was excessive, however when it tanked round June 15, the whale’s account was on the verge of the liquidation threshold. It may have resulted in over $21 million of SOL getting dumped in a single shot, with extreme repercussions out there.

The venture builders tried to contact the whale to no avail. They have been pressured to submit on Twitter and Reddit, urging the whale to contact them, which spooked many different customers who started to drag out their funds. The builders ultimately managed to contact the whale, who added extra collateral.

Nonetheless, earlier than the whale added the collateral, the builders — of their quest to manage the harm —  proposed emergency powers to manage the account within the occasion of liquidation. This earned them dangerous press, because it was in opposition to the spirit of decentralization. The ultimate measure was to arrange a borrower ceiling of $50 million.

The way forward for Solend 

Solend has introduced the ability of DeFi to the Solana community, providing customers many alternatives which have the potential to beef up their income. Although the whale situation laid naked the vulnerability of the protocol, the silver lining was the builders’ means to deal with issues. Crypto continues to be a brand new trade the place persons are studying on the transfer. The profitable dealing with of the whale situation to the satisfaction of most stakeholders raised the protocol’s credibility.

Moreover, Solend brings a robust DeFi factor to the Solana ecosystem. Vulnerabilities however, the appliance is intriguing to tinker with, and because the loopholes get plugged, extra customers would possibly discover it thrilling.